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Some information about the systems of coding

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Old 24-02-2007, 10:30  Translate from English to Italian  Translate from English to French  Translate from English to German  Translate from English to Spanish  Translate from English to Dutch  Translate from English to Greek  Translate from English to Portuguese  Translate from English to Russian  Translate from English to Russian
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Default Some information about the systems of coding

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Mediaguard is a conditional access system for digital television developed by SECA (Société Européenne de Contrôle d'Accès), which has since become Nagra France.

Mediaguard has been on the European market since 1996. It is also used in Middle-East and Asia. Mediaguard is notably used by Canal+.

Manufacturers which incorporate Mediaguard into their equipment are notably Hitachi, Ltd., Humax, JVC, Kenwood Electronics, Nokia, Pace Micro Technology, Philips, Pioneer Corporation, Sagem, Samsung Electronics, Sony Corporation, Strong, Thomson, and Toshiba

The original Mediaguard system has been broken by the end of the 1990s, allegedly by rival *** Group, which resulted in new cards being distributed to customers in 2002.
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Old 24-02-2007, 10:31  Translate from English to Italian  Translate from English to French  Translate from English to German  Translate from English to Spanish  Translate from English to Dutch  Translate from English to Greek  Translate from English to Portuguese  Translate from English to Russian  Translate from English to Russian
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Default Viaccess

Viaccess is an encrypting system for digital television developed by France Télécom. There are four versions in use today, Viaccess PC2.3, Viaccess PC2.4, Viaccess PC2.5 and Viaccess PC2.6.

Viaccess was developed as the digital version of the EuroCrypt system used with the hybrid MAC system.

The first version is sometimes referred to as Viaccess 1, and the latter three, although different, as Viaccess 2. PC2.3 and PC2.4 are known to be ineffective, and many set-top boxes can be 'patched' to decrypt Viaccess signals without payment, however PC2.5 and PC2.6 are secure, with PC2.5 remaining secure two years after its first commercial deployment. PC2.6 was introduced at the end of 2005.

There are two modifications of Viaccess PC2.3 in use. The first, known as TPS Crypt, is used by TPS. Despite being compromised also, the TPS Crypt system has been further modified to utilise Advanced Encryption System (AES) keys. These AES keys were originally updated once daily, however after this inconvenienced unauthorised viewers little, a second TPS crypt system was introduced, by which keys are changed every 15-20 minutes, with keys being sent over TPS's internal Open TV system. This therefore meant that only TPS receivers could receive the new AES key, and not the insecure TPS subscription cards. Monitoring and analysing of the keys by hacking groups, however, has brought about key lists, where the AES keys have been successfully predicted. Implimentation of this procedure of automatically updating keys has proved difficult, if not impossible, to impliment on many satellite receivers, rendering the TPS Crypt AES system a general success.

The second Viaccess modification, called ThalesCrypt, is used by Canal Satellite France to protect its contents on the transport network to the head-ends of the cable networks; it is an over-encryption mechanism of the original protocol encryption keys.


Viaccess is currently used by a large number of providers. These include;

* TPS
* ART
* NTV
* Televisa Networks
* Canal Satellite France
* ETTV
* TBLTV
* Home2US

Viaccess is the 3rd largest conditional access system provider in the world (in 2004).

Viaccess is also a subsidiary of France Télécom which offers pay TV and DRM enabled software.
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Old 24-02-2007, 10:35  Translate from English to Italian  Translate from English to French  Translate from English to German  Translate from English to Spanish  Translate from English to Dutch  Translate from English to Greek  Translate from English to Portuguese  Translate from English to Russian  Translate from English to Russian
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Default Nagravision

Three versions of Nagravision are in common use for digital satellite television, known as Nagravision, Nagravision A, and Nagravision Aladin. Nagravision A and Aladin are often confused with each other. Nagravision Aladin is however, a complicated combination of Nagravision A and Mediaguard SECA 2 encryption.

The decryption unit is either integrated into a receiver, available as a conditional access module (CAM), or as one of many encryption schemes supported on a CAM emulator.

Nagravision has been adopted all over the world as a conditional access system, with providers like NTL UK and Dream Satellite TV Philippines (on Nagravision 1), Polsat of Poland, Digital+ Spain, TV Cabo Portugal, Premiere Germany, Digi TV Romania, BellExpressVu Canada and Dish Network USA (On Nagravision A). Digital+ remains the only provider using Nagravision Aladin (And also Nagravision A) after its adoption in March 2005. Despite several security flaws, algorithm changes and revisions have kept the Nagravision A system generally secure, although the common encryption game of "cat and mouse" between the conditional access providers and signal pirates has developed. The original Nagravision 1 is now almost obsolete after it was originally compromised in 1999, although Dream Satellite maintain relative security by changing keys several times throughout the day, causing great inconvenience to unauthorized viewers.

The Nagravision A providers have been confronting the issue of satellite signal piracy and smart card piracy, since the system was publicly compromised in summer 2005. At first, security of the system was regained, with software revisions, manipulation of the Nagravision encryption algorithm ,along the phasing out of older cards, like the ROM101 (and ROM102 in Europe) in favour of the newer ROM130. Card hackers have, however, continued to compromise the encryption system, with continued software and key releases being made available to the public. Software emulation of the Nagravision system has been implemented in many Free-To-Air Satellite receivers, allowing unauthorised viewing to those who do not even own an official card.

Analog system

An older Nagravision system for scrambling analog satellite television programs was used in the 1990s, for example by the German pay-TV broadcaster Premiere. In this line-shuffling system, 32 lines of the PAL TV signal are temporarily stored in both the encoder and decoder, and read out in permuted order under the control of a pseudorandom number generator. A smartcard security microcontroller (in a key-shaped package) decrypts data that is transmitted during the blanking intervals of the TV signal and extracts the random seed value needed for controlling the random number generation. The system also permitted the audio signal to be scrambled by inverting its spectrum at 12.5 kHz using a frequency mixer.

Like with most smartcard-based conditional access systems, the smartcards used with the analog Nagravision system were repeatedly reverse engineered by hackers, which allowed the production of clone cards and "patched" receivers. However, the analog Nagravision system was the first widely used cryptographically controlled conditional access system that was broken in a way that bypassed the tamper resistance of its smartcard entirely and from which no recovery was possibly by replacing all smartcards. The weakness exploited by this attack is the random seed value that is used to control the descrambling process. It is only 15 bits long and by the late 1990s, even low-cost home computers with frame grabbers were computationally powerful enough to try all 215 = 32768 possible permutations of video lines for each frame in real time. Software decoders were written that selected of this small number of possible permutations the one that maximized the similarity of neighboring image lines in the resulting image and displayed the result. The scrambling of the audio signal was not a cryptographically controlled process and can easily be undone using the same frequency mixer circuit used for scrambling
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Old 24-02-2007, 10:37  Translate from English to Italian  Translate from English to French  Translate from English to German  Translate from English to Spanish  Translate from English to Dutch  Translate from English to Greek  Translate from English to Portuguese  Translate from English to Russian  Translate from English to Russian
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Default Cryptoworks

Cryptoworks is a DVB conditional access system, developed by Philips CryptoTec but now belonging to Irdeto.

Cryptoworks is used by Digiturk, the BFBS satellite service, UPC Direct, the ORF, and other pay TV or free-to-view systems; mainly in Europe. It is also used to encrypt some feeds to cable television head-ends.
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Old 24-02-2007, 10:39  Translate from English to Italian  Translate from English to French  Translate from English to German  Translate from English to Spanish  Translate from English to Dutch  Translate from English to Greek  Translate from English to Portuguese  Translate from English to Russian  Translate from English to Russian
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Default Videoguard

VideoGuard (sometimes referred to simply as ND*S), produced by ND*S, is a digital encryption system for use with conditional access television broadcasting. It is used almost exclusively on digital satellite television (DVB-S) systems operated by News Corporation, which owns the majority of ***. Its most widely used implementation is BSkyB's Sky Digital (popular in Britain and Ireland) which adopted the system in 1998. Several other broadcasters around the world use the VideoGuard system, including: Yes (Israel), Viasat (Scandinavia), Sky Italia, Sky Network Television (New Zealand), Foxtel (Australia), Tata Sky (India) and TotalTV (Serbia).

Since the majority of content provided by companies like BSkyB requires subscription, VideoGuard protects that content by encrypting both standard subscription channels and pay-per-view movies and events. Access flags can be downloaded to the subscriber's card either over the air (via 'hidden' channels) or by using the box's built in modem, thereby allowing rapid changing of channel packages and ordering of events.

The VideoGuard system was introduced by News Corporation to replace the analogue VideoCrypt system. To date, the current encryption method has remained secure, although various pay per view flaws have been identified. Even these flaws are related merely to the stb's circuitry, rather than the *** card. It is suspected that the version initially used by Sky Digital was either insecure or close to being broken, as a software update rolled out to all boxes required replacement of the BSkyB subscriber's viewing card.

Despite being designed to protect pay-TV, VideoGuard is used by BSkyB to encrypt Channel 4, and Five (To prevent these channels being viewed outside the UK for copyright reasons). These channels are free-to-air in the UK, either using analogue PAL or digital terrestrial (DVB-T) receivers, and can also be viewed using any working VideoGuard card from the correct area, even if expired. Until November 2005, all of ITV's channels were also encrypted using VideoGuard, but switched to becoming unencrypted like the BBC's channels. All these channels can also be viewed using the Freesat from Sky product which, due to the availability of inexpensive cards, potentially increases the risk of VideoGuard becoming cracked through experimentation.

To greatly improve security of the Videoguard encryption, News Corporation's encrypted output can only be viewed using a designated Set-Top Box (STB) in which VideoGuard is embedded into the circuitry. Due to News Corporation's control of VideoGuard, it is impossible to get a licensed VideoGuard Conditional Access Module (CAM) for a third-party STB, or to obtain VideoGuard routines for a software CAM. This is seen by many as an example of vendor lock-in, often to protect NewsCorp's preferred suppliers of boxes, eg PACE. In contrast, CAMs and even software CAMs are available for all other encryption systems, including Irdeto, Nagravision and Viaccess. The CAM monopoly may be broken due to Italian inter-operability laws, which are forcing Sky Italia to allow other boxes to read their cards for legally acquired services.

Several groups managed to reverse-engineer VideoGuard to the point where a legitimate subscriber's card can be read and utilisted firmware to decrypt only those channels that subscriber is authorised to view. A software CAM emulator for the DreamBox Linux-powered satellite receiver, along with the Dragon and T-Rex Conditional Access modules. However, many broadcasters choose to pair their cards to a specific STB serial number, meaning that a paired (also called "married") card can only be used in a broadcaster-supplied STB, or by using the serial number from said receiver with one of the reverse-engineered solutions.

VideoGuard Users

* BSkyB
* DirecTV
* Foxtel
* Sky Italia
* Yes DBS
* HOT
* Viasat
* Indovision
* Tata Sky
* SKY Network Television
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Old 24-02-2007, 10:42  Translate from English to Italian  Translate from English to French  Translate from English to German  Translate from English to Spanish  Translate from English to Dutch  Translate from English to Greek  Translate from English to Portuguese  Translate from English to Russian  Translate from English to Russian
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Default Biss

Basic Interoperable Scrambling System, usually known as BISS, is a satellite signal scrambling system developed by the European Broadcasting Union and a consortium of hardware manufacturers.

Prior to its development, "ad-hoc" or "Occasional Use" satellite news feeds were transmitted without any encryption. This allowed anyone with the correct equipment to view the program material. Using BISS the transmission is protected by a 12 digit "session key" that is agreed by the transmitting and receiving parties prior to transmission. The key is entered into both the encoder and decoder , this key then forms part of the encryption of the digital TV signal and only receivers with the correct key will decrypt the signal. The system, however, is insecure.
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Old 26-02-2007, 17:27  Translate from English to Italian  Translate from English to French  Translate from English to German  Translate from English to Spanish  Translate from English to Dutch  Translate from English to Greek  Translate from English to Portuguese  Translate from English to Russian  Translate from English to Russian
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Default Conax

Conax is a company that designs conditional access systems for digital television. Based in Oslo, Norway, Conax has subsidiaries in the USA, India and Germany and sales & support offices in Russia, Singapore, China, South Korea, Brazil, and Canada.

Between 1986 and 1992 the core of Conax was formed as a research team in Telenor's Research and Developement department. The technology, including one of the world's first pay-TV smart cards, was put into large-scale operation from 1992. In 1994 Telenor Conax was established as an independent company within the Telenor group.

The company is today owned 90% by Telenor, the leading telecom, IT and media company in Norway and 10% by Telenor Venture II ASA, a new fund of TeleVenture, with its main areas of interest within mobile communications, broadband and new media and internet.

Open and Interoperable by sticking to a non-proprietary and open solution, Conax allows the possibility of “freedom of choice” in technology. This is achieved by:

* A fully open, fair and non-discriminatory licensing policy for STB manufacturers to include support for Conax CAS in the STB
* Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) and OpenCable™ compliant transmission format
* DVB SimulCrypt compliance on both transmission and receiver (STB) sides
* Detachable security module using an ISO 7816 compatible smart card
* Supply of Common Interface Conditional Access Modules (CAMs) and CableCards™ (option)
* Using a standard over-the-air STB loader such as the Euroloader or other non-proprietary STB loader controlled by the operator
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Also from wikipedia:

PowerVu

PowerVu is a conditional access system for digital television developed by Scientific Atlanta.

It is used for professional broadcasting, notably by Retevision, Bloomberg Television, Discovery Channel, AFRTS and American Forces Network. It is also used by cable companies to prevent viewing by unauthorized viewers.

PowerVu has decoders that decode signals from certain satellites for cable distribution services. These decoders can also be used just like the FTA (Free-To-Air) satellite receivers if properly configured. PowerVu is considered very secure and has not been compromised since it uses a complicated system to authorize each PowerVu receiver and trace its history of ownership and usage. Most PowerVu users are professional cable or satellite companies, using the service and equipment for signal redistribution, because regular users cannot afford it.
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Default Index Encryptions System

B - Betacrypt
C - Cryptovision
CC - Codicrypt
Co - Conax
Cr - Cryptoworks
D - Digicipher
D2 - Digicipher2
Dc - Dreamcrypt
DS - Digistar
E - Eurocrypt
IC - IceCrypt
I1 - Irdeto1
I2 - Irdeto2
KF - KeyFly
M - SECA/Mediaguard
M2 - Mediaguard2
N - Nagravision (Syster)
N2 - Nagravision2
N3 - Nagravision3
NSHL - Neotion SHL
NL - Nokia Lineshuffiling
Ok - Omnikrypt
PP - Ping Pong
PV - Power Vu
S - Simulcrypt
SC - SkyCrypt
SoftV- Soft Videocrypt
SP - Sky Pilot
V - Videocrypt
V2 - Videocrypt2
Vc - Viaccess1
Vc2 - Viaccess2
VG - Videoguard
W - Wegener

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